What are Terpenes?
Produced in the same glands that produce
cannabinoids , terpenes are aromatic oils that give different cannabis strains their unique flavors like berry, pine, citrus, and mint.
For many strong-smelling plants and flowers, the development of terpenes in cannabis began for adaptive purposes: to repel pests and predators and lure pollinators. Weather, age, time of day, climate, the type of soil, even what kind of fertilizers are used are some factors that can influence the development of terpenes.
Researches have found hundreds of different terpenes in different strains of cannabis, and every one is composed of its own unique terpene type. Different terpenes will produce different effects. Some like Pinene and Myrcene promote calming, relaxation and stress-relief, while others like Limonene and Terpinolene potentially promote energy, focus and acuity.
One of the most common terpenes found in cannabis is myrcene. Myrcene is found in hops and is responsible for the peppery, spicy, balsam taste in beer. It’s can also be found in lemongrass, Mango and Thyme. Myrcene has been shown to promote a calming effect. The aroma has been described as green and freshly herbaceous that is distinctively “hoppy.”
Limonene is commonly associated with fruity, citrus aromas, and it’s found in many everyday items like Cosmetics, cleaning products, and fruit rind. While limonene is often assumed to be abundant in strains that smell like lemon, this isn’t always the case. When seeking strains high in limonene, you’ll need to find lab-tested products. Strong Citrus notes with distinct tangerine, grapefruit, lemon, and orange flavors that push through.
Caryophyllene is one of the more interesting terpenes because it affects our endocannabinoid system biding to CB2 receptors.This behavior cause Caryophyllene to have a large amount of potential medicinal benefits. A thick, savory, and spicy smell, comparable to black pepper or concentrated clove. The flavor is potent, and spicy giving a full body punch.
Terpinolene’s aroma is more complex than some other cannabis terpenes. Terpinolene shows up as an additive in soaps and perfumes. It’s piney, floral, herbal, with notes of citrus it’s flavor profile has be categorized as “fresh”.
Pinene is an aromatic compound commonly found in cannabis that offers some potential health benefits such as an anti-inflammatory, a Bronchodilator which helps with asthma, it can reduce stress and help with pain relief. Another benefit is it may help combat short term memory loss associated with cannabis use. Strong Pine notes with a hint of rosemary.
The distinct taste of IPA’s are created in large part by hops. The terpene found in hops also helps give cannabis its unique odor. Both hops and cannabis contain humulene. This terpene is found in a many plants and has been used in holistic Eastern medicine for centuries. Humulene has also found a place in modern medicine, research has proven it to be an effective anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and appetite suppressant. A subtle earthy or musky aroma with spicy undertones.
Ocimene may also offer a wide array of medicinal properties and well as uplifting effects, its shown promising antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-oxidative, and antiseptic effects, although more research needs to be conducted to determine what this terpene does and doesn’t do. Sweet and herbaceous flavors with citrusy and woody undertones.
Linalool is very powerful in it’s anticonvulsant quality. Studies have shown that this terpene show tremendous potential in seizure related illnesses. Linalool has both calming and stress relief properties that are used in many soap and cosmetic products. Described as sweet lavender with a touch of citrus.
Geraniol gets its name from the geranium plant, Studies have shown Geraniol has potential as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory,antifungal, and antibacterial. Geraniol has sweet floral notes with an undertone of citrus.
Carene is believed to promote memory retention and alertness. Research indicates that carene can be effectively used to reduce acute inflammation, stimulate bone growth, and may help with the stimulation of memory and the increase of memory retention, which could make Carene very useful for the treatment of Alzheimer’s. Often boasting a subtle lemon flavor when cedar undertones and hint of sweetness.